Haiti Reparations Resolution Case

 

Concerned by the high levels of poverty and the continued suffering of the peoples of Haiti.

 

Comparison Between Haiti and Jamaica

Category

Haiti

Jamaica

Area

27,751 km2 (10,714 sq mi)

11,100 km2 (4,444 sq mi)

Population

10 million

2.8 million

Density

361.5/km2 (936.4/sq mi)

252/km2 (656/sq mi)

Nominal GDP Per Capita

US$570

US$ 5,335

Human Development Index 2006

0.521 (148th of 178)

0.771 (87th of 179)

Happy Planet Index 2009

50.8 (42nd of 143)

70.1 (3rd of  143)

Life Expectancy 2005-2010 (years)

60.9 (149th of 195)

72.6 (88th of 195)

Population below PPP $1 per day (%):

53.9 %

2.0 %

Net enrolment ratio in primary education (% both sexes):

22.0 %

91.0 %

Sources: Wikipedia and MDG Monitor

 

Haiti has remained the least-developed country in the Americas. It is an impoverished country, one of the world's poorest and least developed. Comparative social and economic indicators show Haiti falling behind other low-income developing countries (particularly in the hemisphere) since the 1980s. Haiti now ranks 146th of 177 countries in the United Nations Human Development Index (2006). About 80% of the population were estimated to be living in poverty in 2003.[1] Haiti is the only country in the Americas on the United Nations list of Least Developed Countries. Economic growth was negative in 2001 and 2002, and flat in 2003.

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Recalling that the States of the United Nations have agreed to make the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a top priority.

 

            Millennium Development Goals
Reaching the Millennium Development Goals
At the Millennium Summit in September 2000 the largest gathering of world leaders in history adopted the UN Millennium Declaration, committing their nations to a new global partnership to reduce extreme poverty and setting out a series of time-bound targets, with a deadline of 2015, that have become known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. They include reducing extreme poverty, reducing child mortality rates, fighting disease epidemics such as AIDS, and developing a global partnership for development.

There are eight goals with 21 targets,[3] and a series of measurable indicators for each target.[4]

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

·               Target 1A: Halve the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day

·               Target 1B: Achieve Employment for Women, Men, and Young People

·               Target 1C: Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education

·               Target 2A: By 2015, all children can complete a full course of primary schooling, girls and boys

Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

·               Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015

Goal 4: Reduce child mortality

·               Target 4A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

Goal 5: Improve maternal health

·               Target 5A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

·               Target 5B: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health

Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

·               Target 6A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

·               Target 6B: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it

·               Target 6C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

·               Target 7A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources

·               Target 7B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss

·               Target 7C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation (for more information see the entry on water supply)

·               Target 7D: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers

Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development

·               Target 8A: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system

·               Target 8B: Address the Special Needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDC)

·               Target 8C: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States

·               Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term

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Concerned that is very unlikely that the Millennium Development Goals will be achieved in Haiti by 2015.

 

Haiti’s Progress Towards Achieving the MDGs

Goal

Progress

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Insufficient information

Achieve universal primary education

Possible to achieve if some changes are made

Promote gender equality and empower women

on track

Reduce child mortality

Off track

Improve maternal health

Off track

Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Off track

Ensure environmental sustainability

Off track

Develop a global partnership for development

Insufficient information

 

 

Progress Summary

 

Achieved

0

Very likely to be achieved,

0

on track

1

Possible to achieve if some changes are made

1

Off track

4

Insufficient information

2

 

 

http://www.mdgmonitor.org/country_progress.cfm?c=HTI&cd=332

 

Over the past 35 years, the members of the UN have repeatedly made a "commit[ment] 0.7% of rich-countries' gross national product (GNP) to Official Development Assistance."[19] The commitment was first made in 1970 by the UN General Assembly.

The text of the commitment was:

"Each economically advanced country will progressively increase its official development assistance to the developing countries and will exert its best efforts to reach a minimum net amount of 0.7 percent of its gross national product at market prices by the middle of the decade."[20]

However, there has been disagreement from the US, and other nations, over the Monterrey Consensus that urged "developed countries that have not done so to make concrete efforts towards the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national product (GNP) as ODA to developing countries

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Recalling that in 1825 after their emancipation and liberation from slavery, the Haitian Government under threat of force were required to pay the French Government 90 million francs - an indemnity for profits lost from the slave trade. Also On more than one occasion US, French, German and British forces claimed larges sums of money from the vaults of the National Bank of Haiti.

Recalling that the United States of America influenced and directed the course of Haiti’s development during their occupation of Haiti from 1915 to 1934 when they dismantled the constitutional system, reinstituted virtual slavery, and established the National Guards that ran the countries by violence and terror after the Americans left.

Haiti History

During the 1790’s Toussaint L'Ouverture, a former slave and leader in the slave revolt who rose in importance as a military commander because of his many skills, achieved peace in Saint-Domingue after years of war against both external invaders and internal dissension. He had established a disciplined, flexible army and drove out both the Spaniards and the British invaders who threatened the colony. He restored stability and prosperity by daring measures After Toussaint L'Ouverture created a separatist constitution, Napoleon Bonaparte sent an expedition of 30,000 men under the command of his brother-in-law, General Charles Leclerc, to retake the island. Leclerc's mission was to oust Louverture and restore slavery. The French achieved some victories. Leclerc invited Toussaint Louverture to a parley, kidnapped him and sent him to France, where he was imprisoned at Fort de Joux. He died there in 1803 of exposure and tuberculosis or malnutrition and pneumonia.

The native leader Jean-Jacques Dessalines, long an ally of Toussaint Louverture, defeated the French troops at the Battle of Vertières. At the end of the double battle for emancipation and independence, former slaves proclaimed the independence of Saint-Domingue on 1 January 1804, declaring the new nation as Haiti, honoring one of the indigenous Taíno names for the island. It is the only nation born of a slave revolt .

In July 1825, the king of France Charles X sent a fleet of fourteen vessels and troops to reconquer the island. To maintain independence, Haiti’s President Boyer agreed to a treaty by which France recognized the independence of the country in exchange for a payment of 150 million francs (the sum was reduced in 1838 to 90 million francs) - an indemnity for profits lost from the slave trade. The French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher wrote "Imposing an indemnity on the victorious slaves was equivalent to making them pay with money that which they had already paid with their blood."

On more than one occasion US, French, German and British forces claimed larges sums of money from the vaults of the National Bank of Haiti.

Expatriates bankrolled and armed opposing groups. In 1888 US Marines supported a military revolt against the government. In 1892 the German government supported suppression of the movement of Anténor Firmin. In 1912 Syrians residing in Haiti participated in a plot in which the presidential palace was destroyed. In January 1914, British, German and United States forces entered Haiti ostensibly to protect their citizens.

The United States occupied the island from 1915 to 1934. The administration dismantled the constitutional system, reinstituted virtual slavery for building roads, and established the National Guards that ran the countries by violence and terror after the Marines left.

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Mindful of the success and effectiveness of programmes such as The Millennium Villages Project in achieving development in parts of Africa.

 

Millennium Villages
The Millennium Villages are based on a single powerful idea: impoverished villages can transform themselves and meet the Millennium Development Goals if they are empowered with proven, powerful, practical technologies. By investing in health, food production, education, access to clean water, and essential infrastructure, these community-led interventions will enable impoverished villages to escape extreme poverty, something that currently confines over 1 billion people worldwide.

The Millennium Villages Project is a project of the Earth Institute at Columbia University.

It is an approach to ending extreme poverty and meeting the Millennium Development Goals--eight globally-endorsed targets that address the problems of poverty, health, gender equality, and disease. Initiating a paradigm shift, the Millennium Villages promote an integrated approach to rural development, using evidence-based technologies and strategies in each sector, with sufficient investment over a sufficient period of time. This approach also combines a critical cost-sharing and planning partnership with local and national governments, and rural, African communities, while focusing on capacity building and community empowerment. By improving access to clean water, sanitation and other essential infrastructure, education, food production, basic health care, and environmental sustainability, Millennium Villages ensures that communities living in extreme poverty have a real, sustainable opportunity to lift themselves out of the poverty trap.[1]

Millennium Villages are divided into different types. There are the original core villages which include different agroforestry zones covering 13 sites in 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including: Sauri and Dertu, Kenya; Koraro, Ethiopia, Mbola Tanzania, Ruhiira, Uganda, Mayange, Rwanda, Mwandama, Malawi, Pampaida and Ikaram, Nigeria, Potou, Senegal, Tiby and Toya, Mali, and Bonsaaso, Ghana.[2]

There are additional Millennium Villages which are following the Millennium Village program but which are not directly supported through the Earth Institute at Columbia University. These additional villages are located in Liberia, Cambodia, Jordan, Mozambique, Haiti, Cameroon and Benin.

Guiding Principles

Financing

The Government of Japan (through its Human Security Trust Fund) and private philanthropic donors (through the Earth Institute at Columbia University) provided the financing the first set of Millennium Villages, reaching some 60,000 people.

A core aspect of the Millennium Villages is that the poverty-ending investments in agriculture, health, education, and infrastructure can be financed by donors at an incremental cost of just $50 per villager per year—$250,000 per village per year. The overhead costs of managing the project in each village is $50,000 per year.

On a per person basis, the total village cost of $110 per person is comprised of:

Critically, the external financing needs of $70 per capita are in line with the financial commitments made by the leaders of industrialized countries at the 2005 Summit in Gleneagles. G8 countries promised to raise their development assistance to Africa to the equivalent of $70 per capita by 2010.

Prospects for scaling-up village-based interventions

Launched on 1 June 2006, the Millennium Villages Project was initially planned as a five-year project, a second phase has now been planned for 2011-2015.

In a review of the project undertaken by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) crop yield increases of 85-350% were recorded as well as reductions in malaria incidence of over 50%. While agricultural surpluses are able to be channelled into school meals programmes, helping to increase enrolment, improvements in health status are reported to increase labour productivity.

According to ODI policy conclusions, in order for wider scale, more sustainable implementation to be achieved, village projects need to identify shared goals, seeking evidence-based, cost-effective interventions by governments and implementing agencies. They will also need to focus on addressing upstream investments such as training facilities for front-line staff. [4]